With such a wide range of sun protection products in the market, choosing one that works for your skin can be difficult and confusing. 

What do we look at and how do we choose the best sunscreen for our skin?

Sunscreen helps to shield our skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays in 2 ways: 

  • By scattering UV, reflecting it away from us
  • By absorbing UV before it reaches our skin 

There was a time when SPF was the main hype but research has since gone further than that. 

We now know that the 2 main types of UV coming into contact with our skin are: 

  1. UV-A: does not cause sunburn but penetrates deeply into skin and causes wrinkles and photoageing. Also increases the risk of skin cancers
  2. UV-B: burns our skin, reaches only the epidermis, causes skin cancer.  

Let’s dissect the main labels on a sunscreen bottles and what do they mean. 

1. SPF

This is probably the most widely recognized label on a sunscreen bottle, with numbers going ever higher, ranging from 4 to 100+. What does it mean though?

SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor. It is a measure the fraction of UV-B reaching the skin. For example, SPF 15 means that 115 of UV-B will reach the skin, assuming that the sunscreen is applied evenly at a dosage of 2mg/cm2. Thus, if a person normally burns in 10 minutes under the sun, it would theoretically take him/her 150 minutes to burn with an SPF 15 sunscreen. 

However, it is also important to note that sunscreens with higher SPF do not last or remain effective any longer than lower SPF sunscreens, and the general rule of thumb would be to reapply every 2 hours. The scale of SPF is also not linear. 

Image result for SPF scale

Hence, a high SPF does not mean stronger protection. SPF is only a rating for UV-B, and there are other things to look out for, such as UV-A protection, water or sweat resistance that we will discuss further.

2. UV-A protection

There is not a universal rating system for UV-A protection, which leads to even more confusion. 

Below, we will discuss the main UV-A protection ratings used. 

PPD (Persistent pigment darkening)

Originally developed in Japan, this is the method employed by manufacturers such asL’Oréal.

This method uses UV-A to cause persistent darkening or tanning of the skin. In example, a sunscreen with a PPD rating of 10 should allow a person 10 times as much UV-A exposure as would be without protection. 

PA system

In Asia, a common system used is the PA (Protection Grade of UVA) system. This system is basd on the PPD reaction and is now widely adopted on labels of sunscreen. 

PA+ corresponds to UVA protection factor 2-4; PA++ 4-8, PA+++ >8 and PA++++ >15. 

3. Active ingredients

As discussed earlier, sunscreens absorb or refract UV to protect our skins. Typically, a sunscreen will contain at last one if not more types of active ingredients, which can be either chemical or mineral in nature. The important thing here is to look for a sunscreen with broad spectrum sun protection. 

Two of the most common mineral ingredients are titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. They protect the skin by reflecting, scattering and absorbing UV rays. 

Organic compounds on the other hand works mostly by absorbing UV rays although some of them do scatter and reflect a fraction of UV. Ingredients such as these include benzophenones (oxybenzone), avobenzone (Parsol 1789), ecamsule (Mexoryl SX), salicylates, sulisobenzone, etc. 

4. Water resistance

Another important factor when looking at sunscreens. Choosing the right sunscreen for the activity you will be doing is imperative to ensure its efficacy. However, before doing that, we need to first understand some of the labelling related to water resistance. 

“Water resistant” sunscreen is defined by the FDA as sunscreens with an SPF level that stays effective after 40 minutes in water. Similarly, “very water resistance” – 80 minutes. 

5. Mode of application 

These days, sunscreens come in a variety of preparations, examples of which include sprays, balms, gels, creams, powders etc. One of the important factors to look at when selecting a preparation is how it blends in with your own lifestyle. For example, a powdered or spray sunscreen may be suitable for ladies who have make up on, whilst a water resistant cream sunscreen may be more suitable for the outdoors. It should not be the case that one has only one type of sunscreen for all occasions. 

6. Carrier ingredients

The other important factor when looking at sunscreen is carrier ingredients. Increasingly, we are seeing cosmeceutical manufacturers moving into the sunscreen industry, and there are now a myriad of choices of sunscreens that have multiple other ingredients such as anti-oxidants, vitamins, moisturisers that not only protect your skin against the sun, but nourishes as it does so. For daily use, selecting one that acts as your moisturiser may be suitable for people constantly on the go, but of course, for people with sensitive skin, more attention will have to be paid to the ingredients included in these sunscreens. 

With the myriad of choices in the market, consumers are definitely spoilt for choices, but knowing what one is buying, and choosing the right product for your skin type and lifestyle is very important. With this, we are hoping that consumers are able to choose their sunscreens better for healthier and more youthful looking skin. 

Many people are bothered by eye bags and dark circles that make them look tired or older than their age, but the thought of surgery and general anaesthesia deter many from seeking treatment. Unknown to many however, eye bags can be treated without going under the knife. 

What are the causes of eye bags?

To treat eye bags correctly and effectively, we first have to look at the exact reason causing the appearance of the eye bags and dark circles. 

Various factors that can contribute to the appearance of fatigue and age in the area around the eyes include:

  1. Sagging of fat, skin around the ligaments under the eye, 
  2. Resorption of bones in the cheek, 
  3. Appearance of fine lines and wrinkles around the eyes due to lax skin and over activity of muscles around the eyes,
  4. Drooping of the upper eye lids,
  5. Pigmentation or venous congestion around the eye 
  6. Prominence of the muscle surrounding the eye leading to shadowing, as well as 
  7. Thinning of the skin around the eye. 

These, singularly or in combination lead to tired, old and unattractive looking eyes. 

How can eye bags be removed with no surgery?

A multifactorial problem will need to be treated with a multi-faceted approach. This applies to both non-surgical and surgical treatments of eye bags/ dark circles. 

For non-surgical treatment of eye bag removal, dark circle removal to rejuvenate the eye area, treatments that may be used include: 


Filler injection around the eye is a quick and effective way to improve the appearance of eye bags and shadowing around the eye. With the correct choice of fillers and injection techniques, fillers placed around the cheeks, temples and under eye area can immediately lift and rejuvenate tired looking eyes. 


Botox treatment around the eye typically targets 2 main issues around the eyes: 

a. wrinkles around the eyes,
b. droopy brows

The treatment is aimed at reducing fine lines and wrinkles around the eye as well as lifting the eyebrows to provide a younger looking appearance around the eyes. 

Polynucleotide and hyaluronic acid injections – Skin boosters, Rejuran, Rejuran i (eye). 

Rejuran and/or skin booster injections around the eye can be used to improve hydration and simultaneously stimulate collagen production. This is important as the skin around the eyes is thin and ages quicker than the other parts of the face.
By improving the quality and health of skin around the eye, we may delay premature ageing of the skin in the long run while providing hydration for brighter looking eyes. 


There are many lasers that have been used to treat multiple skin problems.
Specific to the eyes, 3 main lasers can be used to treat the area around the eyes:
i. PICO laser
Pigment lasers such as PICO laser can be used to treat pigmentation in the under eye area, to lighten the appearance of dark circles. PICO laser can also improve the skin texture and tighten the skin around the eyes to reduce fine lines and the appearance of tired eyes.
ii . Fractional lasers (clear+brilliant)
These lasers are fractional ablative lasers that penetrate the skin superficially to create multiple microthermal zones which help the skin in the under eye area purge unwanted pigments as well as stimulate collagen production which can thicken the dermis giving rise to tightening and firming of the skin in the under eye area
iii. Vascular lasers
Vascular lasers are useful in treating dark circles that are due to venous congestion underneath the eye bags

Ultherapy (Microfocused Ultrasound or HIFU)

Microfocused ultrasound or high intensity focused ultrasound is a medical technology that uses an acoustic lens to concentrate beams of ultrasound into deeper layers of skin to stimulate new collagen for skin tightening. Treatment around the eyes can help in brow lifting for more energetic looking eyes, and to tighten skin in the under eye area, to reduce the signs of ageing around the eyes. 

Magnetic multipolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment

Radiofrequency (RF) is a very useful treatment around the eyes to improve blood circulation, as well as tighten the skin around the eyes.  This helps to reduce the puffiness and swelling in the under eye area, as well as reduce the appearance of dark circles. 

Is non-surgical eye bag removal better than surgery?

Surgery remains the gold standard in terms of eye bag removal and results are more permanent than non-surgical options.

However, surgery also has its downsides, such as the need for anaesthesia, more serious complications, it is irreversible and will not correct other volume loss in the face.

Non-surgical options are a good bridge for people who may want more time in considering their options, for people who may not be sure if eye bag removal will necessarily be suitable for them, as well as those who may not be ready for a permanent look. 

Which treatment is suitable for treatment of my eye bags?

No eye bag or dark circle is the same. Decision on the most suitable form of non-surgical treatment will require careful assessment of the eyes, as well as an in-depth discussion with the patient regarding the desired outcome, risks or side effects of the procedure, as well as the projected downtime. A treatment plan customized to the patient will usually yield a much better result than standard off the rack treatment packages. 

How long do the effects last? Is the eye bag removal permanent?

With non-surgical eye bag removal, the duration that effects last typically depends on the treatment undertaken as well as upkeep and maintenance of the skin after treatment. Certain benefits obtained from non-surgical treatment may confer a lasting benefit to the appearance around the eyes, whilst some will require regular maintenance treatments. This will usually be discussed by the treating physician with the patient. 

Is there any downtime/ recovery time from non surgical eye bag removal treatments?

Again, as treatment may be multi-faceted and use a myriad of modalities, the downtime/ recovery time from non-surgical eye bag removal may vary from none to about a week. This is generally much shorter and more acceptable compared to downtime from surgical eye bag removal. 

How do I find the most suitable doctor for eye bag treatment in Singapore?

The one important take-home message for patients considering non-surgical eye bag removal is to find a doctor or clinic that can offer a comprehensive range of lasers and treatments. 

“A multifactorial problem will need to be treated with a multi-faceted approach.”

Eye rejuvenation is a multifactorial problem and will generally require a full range of treatment to achieve the best results. 

Eye Rejuvenation treatment requires professional assessment, proper treatment planning and customization of treatment based on individual needs. 

If you wish to improve your eye bags/ dark circles, visit us at S Aesthetics Clinic to speak to our doctors.

Tags: Botox Singapore, Eye Bag Removal Singapore

‘Doctor, can you hit my pigments with a stronger laser?’ –  How NOT to treat melasma. 

‘Pico’ or Pico Laser has in the last 2 years became one of the most commonly heard buzzwords in the treatment of pigmentation, so much that it has become very common for patients turning up at aesthetic clinics requesting for ‘picolaser’ for their ‘pigment problems’.


However, NOT all pigment problems are the same.

In one of my recent clinic sessions, a patient came in for a consultation to address her facial pigmentation. She had gone for a ‘pico’ session in another clinic a few months ago and was told that her pigments will be cleared in one session.

To her dismay, however, the pigment had become darker and she looked worse after the treatment. She waited a few months hoping that it will lighten out, but it did not.

She asked if she can have stronger pico laser to treat her pigments. I had however started her on a pigment lightening cream instead of hitting her harder with the laser.

Why you may ask. Indeed, picosecond lasers of certain wavelengths are useful in treating pigmentary disorders, however, pigments on the face or anywhere on the body can be caused by a myriad of conditions, and a one-size-fits-all approach is certainly not the way to go.



In her situation, the diagnosis of melasma was made. Melasma is a disorder of hyperpigmentation of which aetiology is thought to be an interplay between UV exposure, genetic and hormonal factors.

It typically appears as symmetrical, blotchy brown patches over the cheeks, although the forehead, temples, nasal bridge, upper lips, and jawline are also known to be affected. The condition affects women more than men and commonly appears in the mid-30s.

It can also develop during or after a pregnancy. Other factors increasing the chance of melasma include a history of excessive sun exposure, family history, increased female hormones either by being on hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive pills, thyroid disease and low testosterone amongst others.

Also Read: What Harm Can Ultraviolet Radiation Do

Although not a life-threatening condition, it can be very disfiguring for people affected by the condition and has a deleterious impact on the quality of life.

Melasma has NO CURE, but it can be treated.


Pigment lasers have since the days of Q-switched lasers become one of the most effective tools in the treatment of pigmentary disorders such as sunspots, freckles and have become one of the most invaluable tools in the clinic of an aesthetic physician or dermatologist.

Pigment lasers use the physics theory of chromophores attracting energy from light. Pigments in the skin act as a chromophore and absorb the energy from certain wavelengths of lasers. These pigments are then selectively fragmented due to photoacoustic and photothermal effects from the lasers and are subsequently ingested and cleared by our immune systems.

Now, this works for most pigments, and will even work for other exogenous pigments such as tattoos. However, why is melasma so difficult to treat? It either responds only to return with a vengeance almost immediately after or just does not respond at all?


To understand why we have to first understand how melasma happens. I mentioned earlier that melasma is an interplay between UV exposure, genetic and hormonal factors.

However, melasma is a condition is not the same as skin hyperpigmentation that is induced by UV or inflammation. Through molecular pathway studies, it is now believed that people affected by melasma have increased expression and upregulation of certain receptors involved in the stimulation of melanogenesis and melanosome transfer compared to normal individuals resulting in persistent hyperpigmentation in melasmic lesions.

This essentially means that pigment-producing cells in people with melasma are sensitized and hyper-stimulated, thus when triggered by factors which can stimulate melanin production, will result in even more pigments being produced and deposited into the skin.


For the above reasons, treatment of facial pigments must start with a sound medical approach. The correct diagnosis must be made before embarking on any treatment.

Pigmentary conditions such as freckles, sun spots, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can be easily treated with lasers.

Melasma, on the other hand, needs to be treated with a more holistic approach. As the condition is due to upregulation and sensitization of pigment-producing cells, treatment starts with treating the root cause of it, by reducing all risk factors for pigment production as much as possible.

This will include treating hormonal factors such as reviewing a patient’s medications for any medications that can alter hormonal levels such as oral contraceptive pills or hormone replacement therapy; sun protection with broad-spectrum sunscreens.

Treatment should also include topical creams for pigments. The pigment cream hydroquinone is still the standard treatment of melasma although, in the recent years, concerns have grown regarding long term use of the medication and alternatives which work to a lesser degree such as creams containing arbutin, azeleic and ascorbic acids, niacinamide kojic acid have also been used.

Now, that does not mean that laser has no role in the treatment of melasma. Judicious use of lasers and acid peels can act as good adjuncts in the treatment of melasma. When used correctly, they can speed up the lightening of pigments; and in recalcitrant melasma which responds poorly to topical creams, lasers and peels still have a strong role to play.


Melasma is a complex and challenging condition to treat and requires both times, patience and persistence. A sound and holistic medical approach by the doctor, and diligence on the part of the patients applying and using the prescribed treatments while maintaining lifestyle factors such as staying away from the sun, avoiding irritative cosmetics are crucial to achieving visible improvement and maintaining good complexion in the treatment of melasma. It may not be curable, but it certainly can be treated well.

If you are indeed suffering from melasma, speak to your doctor so that it can be addressed early.

Ultraviolet radiation

Ultraviolet rays / Ultraviolet radiation. Why do we need to protect ourselves against it?

We often get asked to put on sunscreen before going out in the sun. Why is it so important? 

What are ultraviolet rays?

Our bodies are exposed to many forms of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum on a daily basis. These can be radio waves, microwaves, visible light, X-rays, Gamma radiation, infra-red and ultraviolet (UV) rays.

UV falls in the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between X-rays and visible light: The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy; ie. UV has higher energy than visible light.

Conversely, when it comes to penetration, the longer the wavelength, the deeper the penetration. 

The most common UV radiation is sunlight, which produces mainly 3 types of UV, namely:   


UV-A has the longest wavelength of the three types of UV radiation we get from the sun. It penetrates deep into the deeper layer of our skin (the dermis). 


UV-B has a wavelength between UV-A and UV-C. Some of this is absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer as it passes through the atmosphere. As it has a short wavelength, it reaches only the outer layer of our skin (the epidermis). 


UV-C has the shortest wavelength, all of this is absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer as it passes through the atmosphere. 

We also get UV from other sources like tanning booths, mercury vapour lighting, halogen, fluorescent and incandescent lights and some types of lasers. 

What harm can UV do?

UV exposure has its benefits. UV-B specifically helps the body produce vitamin D and have also been used in the medical setting to treat certain skin conditions. 

However, excessive exposure to UV radiation can result in chronic harmful effects. These include photokeratitis (inflammation of the surface of the eye due to UV exposure), photoaging/ accelerating ageing of the skin, micro-DNA damage and mutations that increase the risk of and cause skin cancers, sunburn.

Does my exposure to UV change depending on where I am or what I am doing?

Many factors determine how much UV exposure you get. These include: 

Geography and Altitude

The equator receives the strongest UV rays as the sun is directly over the equator and UV travels a shorter distance of atmosphere to reach our skin. The ozone layer in the equator is also naturally thinner so less UV is absorbed compared to higher up in the northern and southern hemispheres. 

Having said that, there are certain terrains that can increase UV exposure due to their reflective properties, such as snow, sand, pavement and water. 

Higher land also receives more UV than lower land because there is less atmosphere. 

Timing (Time of the year/ day)

The sun’s angle in relation to Earth varies with the season. During the equinoxes, the sun rests directly above the equator, whilst the solstice is when the Sun reaches its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the equator. Hence why the northern and southern hemispheres receive more UV during their respective summer months and conversely receive less in their winter months. 

Image from National Environment Agency (Singapore)


This serves as a reminder that UV rays are present even on a cloudy day and it can still cause long term damage to skin and eyes. Hence, it is important to continue protecting yourself with sunscreen even if it is a cloudy day. 

UV Index

The UV index (UVI) is a rating scale used throughout the world to indicate the amount of skin damaging UV reaching the Earth’s surface. 

On 19 Feb 2018 in Singapore between 1pm to 3pm, UV Index indicated “Extreme”

In Singapore, the National Environment Agency reports the UVI. It is measured at the Changi Meteorological Station and is reported hourly from 7am to 7pm.

Protective measures should be taken if out in the sun, especially during the peak hours of 11am to 3pm

What can I do to protect against UV?

  • Sunscreen 
  • UV protective umbrella and seek shade
  • Sunglasses that block UV-A and UV-B rays 
  • Wear a broad-brimmed hat

Author: Dr Kwan Yuan Dong

Dr Kwan is a medical aesthetic doctor in S Aesthetics Clinic, Singapore. He is passionate in educating the public about medical aesthetic procedures, skin care and anti-ageing treatment.

*DisclaimerInformation provided in this article is for reference and educational purposes only. It does not replace actual medical advice and consultation with your doctor.

Also See: Pico Laser Singapore, Mole Removal Singapore

As social media becomes an increasingly larger part of our social lives, be it group photos taken at events, or selfies that we post onto our own profiles, we are also increasingly pressured to look the way we have portrayed our digital avatars. 


Photo editing used to be available to only the highest echelons of society, mainly in the form of airbrushed pictures and videos seen in the media.

The advent of beauty and social apps such as Meitu, Instagram and Snapchat in recent years have vastly changed this. Now, every social class in society who has access to a smartphone has the ability to use the various facial filters and editing options to edit their photos and make adjustments to facial features to control the image they portray online. This has redefined the perception of beauty and has allowed us to enhance and beautify our facial and body features in a few clicks and swipe. It has allowed us to take control of our public face in the virtual realm. As a result, wide ranges of “selfies” have since populated the vast social media, ranging from minor edits to completely unnatural looking photos such as the infamous “snake man” from China.


However, despite the now-common phenomenon of photo editing, the advent of these tools has also fuelled new insecurities, such as “what if people noticed?”, “oh, that must have been an edited picture”, “he does not look like that in real life” etc. Also, there is often a fear of not putting your best foot forward – for example, not getting a job or not getting the second date for not looking like the photo in your CV or profile. These have as a result fuelled both insecurities as well as aspirations to look more like our digital images or avatars. 

In the last decade or so, the once-taboo topic of having aesthetic procedures done is now increasingly becoming more mainstream and better accepted socially. Indeed, the acceptance of cosmetic and facial plastic surgery has increased and it is an increasingly common sight to see people discussing what they had done at dinner events, or even overhear discussions about trips to foreign countries for aesthetic and plastic surgical procedures. It is also more common for people to turn up in aesthetic and plastic surgery clinics requesting to look like their app-edited selfies. 


The phenomenon, as it becomes more common, is also attracting more discussions and opinions. Singaporean media TODAY published an opinion recently discussing how doctors in aesthetic and plastic surgery clinics are getting an increasing number of patients requesting to look more like their app-edited selfies, and the concern of how much mental health issues such as body dysmorphia disorder and low self-esteem is at play when it comes to wanting to improve one’s looks.

Rightly so, aesthetic treatments will not treat a fundamental psychological problem and patients who truly have body dysmorphia disorder will not attain satisfaction from aesthetic treatments and in fact may go down a slippery slope of repeatedly seeking enhancements without ever getting satisfaction. 


The desire to enhance one’s look is not new. Selfie-editing apps, however, have now brought the idea of editing how one looks to the masses. After seeing enhanced versions of themselves, people want to be able to control how some of their facial features look. Of course, most people will only want minor improvements, such as a smoother complexion, sharper-looking features, removing their eye bags or dark circles, a more lifted face. Realistic requests and expectations are usually achievable although people also have to be prepared to accept some deviation from their desired results occasionally. 


With aesthetic and plastic surgery procedures receiving more acceptance, the million dollar question is now whether achieving one’s desired look is possible. 

There are a host of treatments to address particular concerns, and when used in combination, they can generally achieve the ‘wants’, albeit minor deviation from the desired results occasionally. 

Patients who want a clearer complexion may undergo treatments to improve skin texture and tone such as light based therapies the likes of Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) treatments and lasers, chemical peels, rejuvenation injections such as Rejuran and skin boosters as well as botox and fillers to lighten the appearance of wrinkles. People with acne scars may consider lasers, peels and injection based treatments such as Rejuran S to lighten and ameliorate the scars over time. 

Read More: Look Refreshed with Restylane Skinbooster

To alter facial features however, a combination of skin tightening treatments, contouring treatments, fillers, thread lifts, botox, or even the more invasive plastic surgery may be used to enhance features such as a higher nose bridge, more defined jaw, slimmer face, higher cheekbones, or even fuller lips; and to reduce the appearance of undesirable features such as a double chin, sagging jowls, deep smile or laugh lines, frown lines, crow’s feet etc. By enhancing the aesthetically pleasing features and reducing the appearance of undesirable features, aesthetic doctors can often rejuvenate and freshen up one’s appearance.

One other common concern is tired eyes. Although most people put this down to having insufficient sleep, the factors causing this is much more complex than that. Tired looking eyes is usually due to a combination of pigmentation in the under eye area, lax skin around the eye, venous congestion as well as herniation of the fat pad under the eye that becomes worse with age. To achieve the ‘eye bag’ function that face editing apps achieve, a combination of treatments including light based therapies such as lasers, fillers and polynucleotide injections, chemical peels, topical skin care as well as addressing age related volume loss in the cheek area, are typically employed to rejuvenate the eyes. 

Read more:
Rejuran i – Everything You Need to Know

As evident from above, there are many options and ways of dealing with particular aesthetic concerns. However, the perception of beauty and facial features varies greatly, not only between cultures, but also between individuals. This is also the reason why customization and tailoring a personalized treatment plan to each individual is so important. 


All these however come at a price. In an ideal world, everyone will want every treatment that can keep them looking like they were in their 20s. However, as with any procedures, there will be a cost to it. The cost of cosmetic procedures have always been perceived to be high and only accessible to the highest echelons of society. 

In Singapore, the growing aesthetic market has attracted the attention of multiple stakeholders. Over the past decade, the number of aesthetic providers have been steadily increasing. With the increased numbers of providers, costs have been on a downward trend over the past decade. Average prices for procedures have fallen over the years and consumers are having an increasing number of choices in terms of providers as well as treatment options. 

Despite this however, misled by the outdated perception that procedures in medical clinics are costly, some people have unwittingly attended unscrupulous beauty parlours that provide aesthetic procedures illegally, sometimes with dire consequences such as infections, blindness, skin necrosis, disfiguring scars etc. 

There are also people who travel abroad to countries like Thailand or South Korea for cosmetic surgical procedures. While people often get satisfactory results, cosmetic surgeons and practitioners in Singapore are often left to manage complications or revisions from botched surgery overseas. 


Everyone has a different motivation in wanting to improve their appearance. The first and foremost important question to answer is if that motivation is warranted and valid. Beyond that, other things such as invasive vs. non-invasive procedures, expectations, desired results also make important considerations. Although reading up from validated websites is also a good way to start, readers will have to be cautious of the source, quality and truth of the information they obtain, as every individual responds differently to treatments and there is a lot of misleading half-truths on the world wide web. Having friends who have done it first-hand to speak to will also be helpful and the final step will be to speak to one or even two trusted doctor to understand the procedures, the possible outcomes, risks and treatment plan to definitively address the aesthetic concern before embarking onto the journey of looking like your selfie. 

See also: rejuran, rejuran healer

Author: Dr Kwan Yuan Dong

Dr Kwan is a medical aesthetic doctor in S Aesthetics Clinic, Singapore. He is passionate in educating the public about medical aesthetic procedures, skin care and anti-ageing treatment.

*DisclaimerInformation provided in this article is for reference and educational purposes only. It does not replace actual medical advice and consultation with your doctor.